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The Max Planck Institute for the History of Science frequently shares news, including calls for papers and career opportunities. Public events—including colloquia, seminars, and workshops—are shown on the events overview. This Working Group chapter project considered the relationship between alchemy and European painting in the late Middle Ages. Other recipes simply refer to pigments as being "alchemical," identifying them generically as being synthetic products.
Artists did not need pigment recipes in order to make pigments, and the overwhelming majority of pigments would have been synthesized without reference to any recipe. Pigment recipes were also found in contexts where the practical synthesis of pigments was not undertaken. Elsewhere in Central Asia, in the towns along the silk road where sumptuously patterned fabrics were produced using the ikat resist technique, garments in dark blue indigo dyed silk and cotton fabric adras with white patterns were thought appropriate for older women and those in mourning.
The ubiquity of indigo dye has resulted in blue becoming the colour of the everyday clothes of the working class in Europe and Asia. But predominantly blue textiles and garments are also some of the most prestigious textiles, imparting status to the wearer and worn on important ritual occasions. Their prestige may be signified by the of valuable materials such as gold and beads, the incorporation of extra colours, patterns and techniques, or special finishes. In China the colour blue generally signifies the natural world, springtime, youth and immortality.
The emperor wore a blue court garment at annual ceremonies associated with the heavens and crops, and indigo blue was the most common ground colour of Manchu clothing during the Qing dynasty —AD. Deceptively simple blue cloths may also convey status through their association with important rituals.
Indigo dyed ulos sibolang are probably among the oldest textile types woven by the Toba Batak people of north Sumatra, Indonesia. They are important ceremonial cloths given by the bride, and are also given as gifts at funerals and were worn as a headcloth by widows and used to cover the corpse. Cobalt was also used in Babylonia, an area rich in cobalt deposits, as early as the 6th century BC to produce blue-glazed stonewares. The succeeding Song dynasty showed little interest in cobalt blue, preferring ceramics in subtle monochrome colours inspired by the love of jade.
It is with the Yuan dynasty —AD that white porcelain decorated with underglaze cobalt blue began to be produced in quantity.
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The Persians greatly admired Chinese porcelain but were unable to produce this high-fired ceramic body themselves. Their own ceramic tradition, heir to the knowledge of the Babylonian ceramicists, employed cobalt blue decoration on stonewares. Evidence suggests that the Persians began commissioning and importing blue-and-white porcelain from the Chinese kilns; it is probably no coincidence that today one of the largest collections of Yuan blue-and-white porcelain is to be found at the Ardabil shrine in Iran.
It is also likely that the cobalt used in Yuan blue-and-white wears was imported from Iran. Both Yuan China and Ilkhanid Iran were ruled by Mongolian dynasties; trade and cultural exchange between the two regions was intense and constant. It has been suggested that the blue and white palette would have appealed greatly to the Mongolians as a symbol of their power uniting heaven blue and earth white.
That the birth of the Chinese blue-and-white porcelain tradition was the result of complex cross-cultural interactions is further suggested by the fact that many of the motifs employed on Yuan blue-and-white ware appear related to Uighur and Mongol textile designs. Alchemy is full of secrets. Nevertheless, over the past generation scholars have been revealing more and more of its surprising content and importance. No longer is it dismissed as a waste of time or a fool's quest.
Alchemy is now increasingly recognized as a fundamental part of the heritage of chemistry, of continuing human attempts to explore, control, and make use of the natural world.
Alchemists developed practical knowledge about matter as well as sophisticated theories about its hidden nature and transformations. But at the same time, they contributed to mining and metallurgy, and pharmacy and medicine, and their achievements and aspirations as well as failures inspired artists, playwrights, and poets. Their researches and goals had both commercial and scientific aspects, as well as philosophical and theological ones. Many alchemists expressed often just implicitly a strong confidence in the power of human beings to imitate and improve on nature, and their work included the exploration of the relationship of human beings to God and the created universe.
The work of historians of science continues to reveal the enormous complexity and diversity of alchemy, its important position in human history and culture, and its continuities with what we now call chemistry.
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Much of this new understanding remains little known outside of a small circle of academic specialists. But the subject of alchemy remains evocative and alluring for a broad array of people; I have met many who would genuinely like to know more about it. Unfortunately, the resources currently available are rather slim. The readily available general histories of alchemy in English are all over 50 years old, and while they were excellent resources in their day, they now need updating.
My goal in writing The Secrets of Alchemy was to bring the results of recent academic work to a broader public. The book surveys the history of alchemy from its origins in late antiquity to the present day. The Secrets of Alchemy also shows how the frustratingly obscure secret language of code and metaphor routinely used by alchemists to hide their knowledge and hopes can be deciphered—sometimes into impressive feats of chemical experimentalism—and even replicated in a modern laboratory.
The text is written for anyone interested in the story of alchemy and its remarkable practitioners and ideas. No treatment of alchemy can be exhaustive. It was too diverse a phenomenon, too widespread geographically, socially, and chronologically. The following excerpts provide glimpses of three alchemical practitioners who carried out their researches in widely different periods and cultures, and often for widely different purposes.
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In the cosmopolitan crossroads of Greco-Roman Egypt, the two streams of craft traditions and philosophical traditions coexisted. Their merger—probably in the third century AD—gave rise to the independent discipline of alchemy. The intimate mingling of the two traditions is evident in the earliest substantial texts we have about chrysopoeia [gold making]. Zosimos was active around AD. He was born in the Upper Egyptian city of Panopolis, now called Akhmim.
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Zosimos is thought to have written twenty-eight books about alchemy; alas, most of what he wrote is now lost. We have only scraps: the prologue to a book titled On Apparatus and Furnaces , several chapters from other works, and scattered excerpts.
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Despite the fragmentary nature of what survives and the difficulty in interpreting it, these writings provide the best window we have onto Greek alchemy. These early texts establish many concepts and styles that would remain fundamental for much of later alchemy. He describes a wide array of useful apparatus—for distillation, sublimation, filtration, fixation, and so forth—in great detail. Many of these instruments are adapted from cooking utensils or items used in perfumery or other crafts.
Zosimos did not devise all these instruments himself, indicating how developed practical chrysopoeia must already have become by the start of the fourth century AD. The writings of his predecessors form a key resource for him, and he cites them frequently. One of the most prominent authorities is named Maria—sometimes called Maria Judaea or Mary the Jew—and Zosimos credits her with the development of a broad range of apparatus and techniques.
It is her name that remains attached to the bain-marie or bagno maria of French and Italian cookery. Several of the pieces of apparatus Zosimos describes—for example, one called the kerotakis —are designed to expose one material to the vapors of another. Indeed, he seems particularly interested in the action of vapors on solids. This interest is partly grounded on practical observations.