According to the work of Genevieve Massignon the original French farmer settlers who called themselves Acadians came from the region around the city of Loudun. Effectively they all knew each other and were often related to each other. During the 17th-century many Mi'kmaq children attended French schools on a daily basis. The Mi'kmaqs also adopted the Roman Catholic faith. The baptism of the aged Chief Membertou and his family at Port Royal, in , was followed in a few years by the conversion, chiefly under Recollet friars, of the whole Mi'kmaq tribe to Roman Catholicism. By the early 18th-century the British found it difficult to distinguish the French Acadians from the Mi'kmaqs.
The French Acadian and the Mi'kmaq population were inseparable. Partly in reaction to Jesuit resistance to sexual relations between Indians and French settlers, the French Crown began a policy in of encouraging intermarriages. In his recent history of the Mi'kmaq, the historian Harald Prins notes that given the close interaction and relationships between the French settlers and Mi'kmaq in Acadia, and the fact that their communities were so small in number, the result of the policy of the French Crown began in of encouraging intermarriages between Indians and French settlers was that few of the local Mi'kmaq and French Acadians would have been "full-bloods" by the mids.
The French Acadian influence was simply enormous.
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Currently most Mi'kmaqs have French surnames. There were efforts made in the 20th-century to recover French narrative tradition in North America. The early French settlers of Canada came in the 17th-century. Quebec was the core of French presence in North America. Charles Marius Barbeau is known more commonly as Marius Barbeau.
He obtained a degree in Anthropology at Oxford University. In , as an anthropologist, Barbeau joined the National Museum, at that time part of the Geological Survey of Canada , and remained until his retirement in Marius Barbeau frequently lectured on anthropology and folklore in a structured and comprehensive manner at at the University of Montreal and at Laval University. Barbeau and others obtained from French communities or individuals within those communities. Also collected were folktales from Native American communities or individuals within those communities.
During his work for the National Museum of Canada he built up the French-Canadian archives in the National Museum by collecting mostly by fieldwork some French folk tales, aside from other material such as artifacts and songs. Since Barbeau's original field work folklorists have collected literally thousands of Canadian French tales. They are mainly based on field surveys. Emphasis has also been given to to understanding how folklore functioned amongst those who used it.
Folktales of French Canada by Edith Fowke Cinderella in America by William McCarthy Creole Medievalism by Michelle Warren The French-Canadian anthropologist Marius Barbeau relates that in , during the course of a meeting of the Anthropological Association, that Franz Boas at Columbia University told him that Native American folktales as far south as Mexico could only be French in origin and were likely transferred through the influence of French Canadians.
See also: "Notes on Mexican Folklore.
The anthropologists Franz Boas, Elsie Parsons, and Aurelio Espinosa held the view that except for the Huichol people, and possibly the Cora people both groups residing in Western Central Mexico , the folklore of all Native American groups studied in Mexico is primarily European in type i. The anthropologist Ralph Beals also commented on the scarcity of tales among many Mexican Indian groups.
The Coeur d'Alene traditionally lived in what would become the Panhandle region of Idaho. The bear constellation of the Coeur d'Alene Indian mythology was a grizzly bear. The Coeur d'Alene lived in the Plateau country of northern Idaho and were well familiar with grizzly bears. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales by Maria Tatar , Page 42 : "The critic who undertakes the task of interpreting a tale without first studying the relation of a folkloric text to its variant forms may find himself drawing generalizations based on false premises. The Prairie Band Potawatomi may be able to state with impunity that the folktale hero P'teejah is a full-blooded American Indian boy, but the folklorist who fails to recognize that P'teejah is the French folk hero Petit Jean masquerading as an Indian will find himself drawing embarrassing conclusions about Amerindian culture.go to link
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The French presence in Canada began in , but permanent settlement did not begin until Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec City in The French eventually carved out an enormous territory stretching as far east as the Maritime provinces and south to the Gulf of Mexico. Under British rule, the French Canadians remained a distinct cultural group. The preservation of their cultural identity was aided by the influence of the Catholic Church, the tendency to marry within their own community, and the tradition of having large families. When the Dominion of Canada was established in , French Canadians accounted for one-third of the new country's population.
The French-Canadian folklore tradition was strengthened by colonial laws that made it crucial for French Canadians to transmit their culture orally across the generations. Since the Metis are primarily of mixed French, Cree and Ojibway origins, it is not surprising that their folklore contains many traditional stories and mythological figures from all three of these traditions. Nenabush is pronounced similar to nay-nah-boosh, Wisakechak is pronounced similar to wee-sah-kay-chock and is often called "Whiskey-Jack" by English speaking Metis people , and Ti-Jean is pronounced tee-zhawn.
STORIES FROM CLOUD-LAND.
Another popular figure in early French Canadian folklore was Dalbec the hunter. Stories involved him with bears, but not as far as I know, bear hunting. Due to the French settlers calling the general region of the Maritime Provinces by the name "Acadia" l'Acadie , possibly from a Mi'kmaq word meaning "fertile land", the French settlers there became known as Acadians.
The establishment of fur posts in by Samuel de Champlain marked the beginning of Acadia.
After the capture of Acadia by British colonial forces in it became known as Nova Scotia. At that time there was a population of some French farmers and fishermen. There was a year period of uninterrupted close relationships and harmony between the Mi'kmaq and French Accadians. This included about 1, Beothucks who dwelt in Newfoundland, but few if any lived along the south coast by Population densities may have been relatively high among these seminomadic hunters of the sea as well as of the eastern boreal forests, but by they probably numbered about 2, after more than a century and a half of contact with European fishermen and traders.
The decline continued into the second quarter of the eighteenth century. A estimate claimed there were two French for every Indian in Acadia Population growth, however, did not occur in the isolation once thought to be characteristic of the Acadians. In the "Great Expulsion" "Great Upheaval" occurred.
In , just prior to or at the outbreak of the British-French war the Seven Year's War , the British deported all the French Acadian population of Nova Scotia including their Mi'kmaq families , at least 10, persons, for their refusal to take an oath of allegiance to Britain and fight against the French. Of the estimated 10, Acadians in about 8, were deported.
Thousands more Acadians were killed for resisting deportation and many Acadian homes were burnt. The Acadians had wanted to keep a neutral position regarding the constant wars between Britain and France. They were initially dispersed along the southern Atlantic seaboard. Many Acadians eventually settled in Louisiana which was still under French rule , becoming known as the Cajun culture "Cajuns".
The name Cajun is derived from Acadia. In , after 7 years of war, the British Government gained effective control and after the proscription against their presence was lifted. Initially only a small number of Acadians were allowed to return to Acadia. Eventually many Acadians returned to Nova Scotia and were resettled on inferior land at the periphery of the settlements established by British settlers.
British settlers now occupied much of their former homeland. For the duration of the war the area had remained largely unoccupied. At the end of the war the British encouraged British settlement of the area. Most of the Acadians who returned to Nova Scotia were those displaced Acadians who had settled in Louisiana. Despite this, some Acadians and Mi'kmaqs went to Newfoundland and, due to lack of suitable government systems, remained there.
There were both French and German settlers in Nova Scotia.
W.G. Sebald and the Ethics of Narrative - Crary - - Constellations - Wiley Online Library
The early Spanish conquerors also were influential in passing European folklore and beliefs to Native Americans especially in Mexico. Dispersion of European tales was likely from the southeast through the trade routes. Influences for the post-Columbian introduction of some European star lore and constellations to the Native Americans include: missionaries, explorers, traders including coureurs de bois "wood rangers" who were free traders who accompanied the Native Americans on their hunting expeditions , colonists, trappers, captives, military alliances, inter-marriage, tribal relocations migrations and reservations , Indian schools, and ethnologists exchanging tales.
Of these early cultural contacts the key ones were French commercial connections and frequent intermarriage with Native Americans i. By the 17th-century European colonists had made direct contact with most Native American communities. Some assimilation had also taken place by this early date.
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It is not too difficult to expect that some European constellation beliefs were transmitted to Native Americans after Columbus. It is particularly among Native American lore that the 4 stars of the 'dipper' are seen as a bear being pursued by the 3 stars of the 'dipper handle.
In his Introduction to Cushing's book Zuni Folk Tales , Pages xvi-xvii the noted ethnologist John Powell relates how a Seneca Indian, the nephew of a Seneca shaman, was taken by the Spaniards to Europe and educated as a priest. On his return the nephew related numerous Bible stories to his uncle who proceeded to compound a number of these with Seneca folk tales and then establish these new stories among the Seneca.
In his early article " Micmac Customs and Traditions" American Anthropologist, January, , Volume 8, Number 4, Pages , Stansbury Hagar stated it was his purpose to make a record of the rapidly disappearing Micmac stories in order that they could be preserved. In this article h e narrates a Micmac folktale about the water fairies, and notes its resemblance to a Chippewa legend "The Magic Circle in the Prairie" , and even to the biblical story of Moses and the Red Sea crossing. Comparison of key features of Seneca and Mi'kmaq bear constellation stories. The variation in completeness is likely due to different gathering techniques.
Seneca per Arthur Parker, The Seneca are indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario. The Seneca nation was one of the original members of the Iroquois League. Mi'kmaq per Stansbury Hagar, Bear pursued as prey. Bear revives annually and is hunted again. The differences between European and Native American bear constellations does not pose a problem for late borrowing. Europe and North America have 2 different bear constellations.
The European bear constellation is inherited from ancient Greece. The Greek bear constellation has a long tail but modern bears have no tail. With the Greek sky-bear the stars of the Big Dipper form the hindquarters and tail of the bear with other forming the head and paws. The Native American bear constellation has no tail.
In most North American folk-tales the 4 stars comprising the cup of the Big Dipper is the bear and the 3 stars comprising the handle of the Big Dipper are warriors chasing the bear around the pole. However, it has been recognised that the wide familiarity of the seven Big Dipper stars would tend to make them readily susceptible to the influence of European star lore.
The later movements of Native American tribes would have assisted in the diffusion of these beliefs. One of the interesting effects of post-colonization was that Native Americans borrowed copied some of each other's tribal dress as they were forced into closer contact. They also adapted some articles of European clothing to their own style. The Mi'kmaq early adopted forms of European dress.